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Pablo Picasso - Francise Claude and Paloma




Pablo Picasso - Fran?ise Claude and Paloma

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1951 Oil on Canvas


Early life

Picasso's father, Jose Ruiz y Blasco, was himself a painter and for most of his life was a professor of art at Spanish colleges. It is from Don Jose that Picasso learned the basics of formal academic art training c figure drawing, and painting in oil. Although Picasso attended art schools thoughout his childhood, often those his father taught at, he never finished his college level course of study at the Royal Academy of San Fernando in Madrid, leaving after less than a year.

The Picasso Museum in Barcelona features many of Picasso's early works, created while he was living in Spain, as well as the extensive collection of Jaime Sabartes, Picasso's close friend from his Barcelona days, and for many years, Picasso's personal secretary. There are many precise and detailed figure studies done in his youth under his father's tutelage that clearly demonstrate his firm grounding in classical techniques, as well as rarely seen works from his old age.

Picasso and pacifism Picasso remained neutral during the Spanish Civil War, World War I and World War II, refusing to fight for any side or country. Picasso never commented on this but encouraged the idea that it was because he was a pacifist. Some of his contemporaries though (including Braque) felt that this neutrality had more to do with cowardice than principle.

As a Spanish citizen living in France, Picasso was under no compulsion to fight against the invading Germans in either world war. In the Spanish Civil War, service for Spaniards living abroad was optional and would have involved a voluntary return to the country to join either side. While Picasso expressed anger and condemnation of Franco and the Fascists through his art he did not take up arms against them.

He also remained aloof from the Catalan independence movement during his youth despite expressing general support and being friendly with activists within it. No political movement seemed to compel his support to any great degree.

After the Second World War, Picasso joined the French Communist party, and even attended an international peace conference in Poland. But party criticism of a portrait of Stalin as insufficiently realistic cooled Picasso's interest in Communist politics.

Personal life

Picasso had a long string of lovers, four children by three women, and two wives. In the early years of the 20th century, Picasso, still a struggling youth, began a long term relationship with Fernande Olivier. It is she who appears in many of the Blue and Rose period paintings. After garnering fame and some fortune, Picasso left Fernande for Marcelle Humbert, whom Picasso called Eva. When it became clear that Eva was dying, Picasso left her as well. Picasso frequented brothels throughout his life, and also had numerous affairs.

In 1918 Picasso married Olga Koklova, a ballerina with Sergei Diaghilev's troupe. Olga introduced Picasso to high society, formal dinner parties, and all the social niceties attendant on the life of the rich in 1920s Paris. The two had a son, Paulo, who would grow up to be a sometime motorcycle racer, sometime chauffeur to his father, and dissolute.

Olga's insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso's bohemian tendencies, and the two lived in a state of near constant conflict. In 1927 Picasso met the then underage (17) Marie Therese Walter, and began a secret affair with her. Picasso's marriage to Olga soon ended in separation, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce, and Picasso did not want Olga to have half his wealth. The two remained legally married until Olga's death in 1955.

Picasso carried on a long standing affair with Marie Therese, and fathered a daughter, Maya, with her. Marie Therese lived in the vain hope that Picasso would one day marry her, and eventually hanged herself after Picasso's death.

The photographer and painter Dora Maar was also a constant companion and lover of Picasso. The two were closest in the late 30s and early 40s, and it was Dora who documented the painting of Guernica. Like all the women in his life, Dora was cruelly abused emotionally by the narcissistic Picasso.

After the liberation of Paris in 1944, Picasso began to keep company with a young art student, Francise Gilot. The two eventually became lovers, and had two children together, Claude, and Paloma. Uniquely among Picasso's women, Francise eventually left Picasso in 1953 because of his abusive treatment, and infidelities. This came as a severe blow to Picasso, who was used to submissive women who lived for whatever scraps of affection or attention he deigned to give them.

He went through a difficult period after Francise's departure, coming to terms with his advancing age, and his perception that he was an old man, now in his seventies, who was no longer attractive, but rather grotesque to young women. A number of ink drawings from this period explore this theme of the hideous old dwarf as buffoonish counterpoint to the beautiful young girl.

Picasso was not long in finding another lover, Jacqueline Roque. Jacqueline worked at the Madoura Pottery, where Picasso made and painted ceramics. The two remained together for the rest of Picasso's life, marrying in 1961. Their marriage was also the means of one last act of revenge against Francise. Francise had been seeking a legal means to legitimize her children with Picasso, Claude and Paloma. With Picasso's encouragement, she had arranged to divorce her then husband, Luc Simon, and marry Picasso to secure her children's rights. Picasso then secretly married Jacqueline after Francise had filed for divorce in order to exact his revenge for her leaving him.

Later works

Painting by Picasso In his 80s and 90s, Picasso, no longer quite the energetic dynamo he had been in his youth, became more, and more reclusive. His second wife, Jacqueline Roque, screened all but the most important visitors, and closest friends, even excluding Picasso's two children, Claude and Paloma, both by his former partner, the painter Francise Gilot.

This reclusive existence intensified after Picasso underwent surgery for a prostate condition in 1965. This surgery is rumored to have left Picasso largely impotent. To a man for whom sexual adventure was such an important part of life, this was a serious life change, and Picasso seems to have dealt with it by redoubling his already prolific artistic output.

Devoting his full energies to his work, Picasso became more daring, his works more colorful and expressive, and from 1968 through 1971 he produced a torrent of paintings and hundreds of copperplate engravings. At the time these works were dismissed by most as pornographic fantasies of an impotent old man, or the slapdash works of an artist who was past his prime. One long time admirer, Douglas Cooper called them "the incoherent scribblings of a frenetic old man in the antechamber of death". Only a decade later, after Picasso's death, when the rest of the art world had moved on from abstract expressionism, did the critical community come to see that Picasso had already discovered neo-expressionism, and was, as usual, ahead of his time.

Pablo Picasso died on April 8, 1973 at Mougins, France, and was interred at Castle Vauvenargues' park, in Vauvenargues, Bouches-du-Rhone. Jacqueline prevented his children Claude and Paloma from attending the funeral.

At the time of his death, Picasso, by now a multi-millionaire, owned a vast quantity of his own work, consisting of personal favorites which he had kept off the art market, or which he had not needed to sell. In addition, Picasso had a considerable collection of the work of other famous artists, some his contemporaries, like Henri Matisse, with whom he had exchanged works. Since Picasso left no will, his death duties, or estate tax to the French state were paid in the form of his works, and others from his collection. These works form the core of the immense, and representative collection of the Musee Picasso in Paris. And recently in 2003, relatives of Picasso inaugurated a museum dedicated to him, in his hometown of Malaga, Spain, called the Museo Picasso Malaga.


Pablo, Francise, Claude and Paloma

This section explores family life at La Galloise, Vallauris, between 1948 and 1953 when Picasso lived with the young French artist Francise Gilot, with whom he had two children, Claude and Paloma. A selection of work including drawings by Francise illustrates these family relationships and their impact on his work. Picassocs interests are also considered, and his passion for bullfighting shown in striking tiles and bold posters.

Picasso's Art in Chronological Order 1951- 1960

1951 - 52


Fumc cVallauris
Francise Gilot avec Paloma et Claude
Femme dessinant (Francise)
Claude crivant
Paloma avec orange
Massacre en Corc
Tce d'homme barbu
Chouette aux traits
Vase tripode
Plat au profil de poisson
Gros oiseau et visage noir
Pichet chouette-femme
Hibou marron noir
Vase cdeux anses poisson
Exposition Vallauris
Joueur de flce
Joueur de flce (2)
Le dcart
La guenon et son petit
Mce aux enfants a l'orange
Tce de chcre
Poisson de profil
Tete de Roi
Tce de femme
Paysage mciterrancn


Paloma en bleu
La liseuse
Tce de chcre de profil
Portrait de Paloma
Colombe volante
Jeune hibou de bois
Poterie rouge
Oiseau au ver
Oiseau au soleil
Oiseau sur la branche
Visage tourmentcbr> Le hibou de la mort
La guerre et La paix [cude]
Vase cdeux anses hautes
Oiseau au ver
Taureau sous l'arbre
Le picador blesscbr> La femme cla fencre
Oiseau cla huppe
Colombe volante (cl'Arc-en-ciel)
Tce de chcre
Poisson sur fond noir
Pichet gothique aux feuilles
La poule
Femme nue accroupie
Plat ovale



Enfant jouant avec un camion
Femme assise dans un fauteuil
Mce et enfant
Le dceuner
Mains et poisson
Courses de taureaux (Corrida)
Vase cdeux anses hautes
Visage de profil
Visage de femme
Mains et poisson
Gros oiseau Picasso
Corrida sur fond noir
Courses de taureaux (Corrida)
La mce et les enfants
Devant le jardin
Tce sur fond noir
Tce de femme
Vase au decor pastel
Mains et poisson
Pichet canse
Visage gris
Corrida et soleil
Pichets ctce
Mce et enfants
Nature morte
Poisson bleu
Courses de taureaux (Corrida)
Vase noir au visage gravcbr> Les jeux et la lecture
Portrait de Madame X
Mains et poisson
Le barbu
Femme du barbu
Vase cdeux anses hautes
Le transformateur
Affiche Picasso Deux Pciodes: 1900-1914 - 1950-1954
Centaure et visage
Pichet ctces
Visage de profil
Pichet aux arums
Picador, Petite visage
Vallauris, Raisins et pomme
La balustrade

1954 - 55


Femme couchc
Cruche avec manche
Portrait de Jacqueline Roque
Portrait de Jacqueline Roque aux mains croiscs
Portrait de Sylvette David au fauteuil vert
Portrait de Sylvette David
Sylvette sur fond rouge
Personnages et tces
Femme couronnc de fleurs
Bouteille gravc
Femme couronnc de fleurs
Pichet gris gravcbr> Pichet au vase
La pose habillc
Pichets espagnols en forme de poule
Inc assise
La chcre
Deux clowns
Jacqueline accroupie
Scce de tauromachie
Le modce et deux personnages
Le peintre et son modce
Pichet espagnol
Affiche Suite de 180 Dessins de Picasso
Cruche cdcor poule
Notre Dame de Paris
Les femmes d'Alger (Delacroix)


Jacqueline en costume turc
Femme nue au bonnet turc
Les femmes d'Alger
Portrait de Jacqueline
Scce de tauromachie (Le picador soulevc
La plage cla Garoupe I
La plage cla Garoupe II
Nature morte sur une commode
Femme nue allongc
Femme nue allongc (Les voyeurs)
Scce de tauromachie (Le torero soulevc
Visage d'homme
Affiche taureaux cVallauris
Les femmes d'Alger
Exposition Vallauris
La tauromachie
Les femmes d'Alger (Delacroix) IX
Deux femmes sur la plage



Homme et femme sur la plage
Fauteuil c'La Californie'
Femme nue accroupie
Jacqueline dans l'atelier
Femme dans l'atelier
L'atelier 'La Californie' cCannes
Femme nue dans le fauteuil cbascule
Femme nue devant le jardin
Le printemps
Claude en torero
Profil de Jacqueline
'Autre chose que de l'enfant beau'
Max Jacob, Chronique des temps hcocues
Chronique des temps hcocues (Max Jacob)
Le taureau
Jacqueline au chevalet
Un poce dans chaque livre
Hibou, verre et fleurs
'Chronique des temps hcocues' (Max Jacob)
Joueur de flce et cavalier
Profil de Jacqueline
Visage de profil
Tce de faune
Vase au bouquet
'Un poce dans chaque livre' (Nu II)
Femme nue de dos
'Vallauris - 1956 Exposition'
Profil en trois couleurs
Femme dans un fauteuil cbascule
Tce de faune (2)
Portrait de Jacqueline
'Chronique des temps hcocues' (Max Jacob)
Faune (Tce de Faune)
Le petit dessinateur
La danse (Frontispice Mourlot III)
Deux clowns et masque (Dcoupage) II
Femme dans l'atelier
La collection de tableautins
L'atelier de Cannes
Scce antique
Deux femmes accroupies
Le torero blesscbr> Homme couchcet femme
Personnage assis et personnage couchcbr> 'Picasso, Dessins d'un Demi-Sicle'
Faune et enfant
Portrait de Lcn Tolstoi
Femme accroupie au bras levcbr> Faune et marin
Portrait de Racine III
Portrait de Picasso et Remarque pour Tcoignage
RencCrevel, Nuit
Pierre-AndrcBenoit, Autre chose
Les Mcines (Velcquez)

1957 - 58


Marc Agustina Sarmiento (Velcquez)
L'atelier (Les pigeons) (Velcquez)
Les Mcines (Velcquez)
Portrait de Jacqueline
Le piano (Velcquez)
La danse des faunes
'Dans l'Argile de Picasso'
La petite corrida
Sujet de Lucas Cranach
L'ecuyce et les clowns
Baigneurs sur la plage cla Garoupe
Courses de taureaux (Corrida)
Vase de fleurs
Buste de profil
Femme au corsage blanc (Jacqueline de profil)
Buste au corsage ccarreaux
Jacqueline lisant
Femme au chignon
Le tremplin
Tce d'homme
Pierre-AndrcBenoit, Picasso derrice le masque
Pour Henri Alberti
Deux femmes assises


Nu qui rassemble des fleurs
Homme et femme
L'atelier de 'La Californie' cCannes
Buste de femme d'aprc Cranach le Jeune
Fleurs et mains
Projet de compotier: visage souriant
Le vieux roi
Buste de minotaure
Tce de minotaure
Portrait d'une jeune fille (Martine Peloux)
Les saltimbanques
Colombe en vol
Pierre-AndrcBenoit, Pierres
Tristan Tzara, La rose et le chien


1959 - 60


El Bobo (Velcquez/Murillo)
Buffet Henri II avec chien et fauteuil
Femme nue couchc sous un pin
Femme nue assise
Femme nue accroupie
Picador et torero attendant le paseo de cuadrillas
Pique (rouge et jaune)
Aprc la pique, taureau et picador
La pique II
Deux femmes (Deux femmes avec un vase cfleurs)
La pique cassc
Femme au collier (Portrait de Jacqueline accoudc au collier)
Mce, danseur et musicien (Bacchanale avec une femme assise tenant un bcc
Bacchanale (Couple et flcistes au bord d'un lac)
Picador entrant dans l'arce
Les banderilles
La pique
Avant la pique
Picador, femme et cheval
Femme dans un fauteuil et guitariste
Les danseurs au hibou
Danseurs et musicien
Le dceuner sur l'herbe (Manet)
JoscDelgados alias Pepe Illo, La Tauromaquia
La Tauromaquia (Suerte llamada de Don Tancredo)
La Tauromaquia (El toro no sale del toril)
La Tauromaquia (Los cabestros retiran al toro manso)
La Tauromaquia (El picador obligando al toro con su pica)
Le vieux roi
Ronde de la jeunesse
Affiches originales des macres de l'cole de Paris
Mandoline, cruche et verre
Noble dame
Picador et cheval (Picador debout avec son cheval)
Femme couchc et guitariste
Bacchanale (Bacchanale au taureau)
Femme couchc et homme au grand chapeau
Bacchanale au hibou
Trois femmes
Tce de femme de profil
Tce de femme
Deux femmes prc d'une fencre
Picador et taureau
Les banderilles
Femme dans un fauteuil et guitariste
Bacchanale au taureau
Faunes et chcre
Petite bacchanale
Le vase de fleurs
Jacqueline au mouchoir noir
La pique I
La tasse
Mandoline, cruche et verre
Compotier au poisson
Femme assise dans un fauteuil


Femme assise
Femme nue sur un divan
Nu sur la plage et pelle
Femme assise (Jacqueline)
L'atelier (Les pigeons perchc)
Femme assise
Le dceuner sur l'herbe (Manet)
La Carmen des Carmen
Visage fcinin, profil
Joueur de cymbales
Joueur de pipeaux
Tce de femme
Centaure phallique II
Buste de femme III
Centaure phallique II
Jacqueline Roque - Tempcature
Dessin original signcbr> Nature morte au crce
Artiste et son modele
Boce dcorc par l'artiste pour son coiffeur Arias

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