Michelangelo - Biography
di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni
Michelangelo (1475-1564) - Michelangelo
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Michelangelo is certainly one of the most representative
artists of the XVI century: a sculptor, painter, architect, and
poet; a true Renaissance man in the best tradition of his
Leonardo da Vinci. He lived to a great age, and enjoyed
great fame in his lifetime. Titian, and Venetian painting generally,
was very much influenced by his vision, and he is responsible in
large measure for the development of Mannerism.
Michelangelo di Ludovico di Lionardo di Buonarroti Simoni was
born in 1475, in a village called Caprese Michelangelo, in the
Casention area of Arrezo province, Tuscany, Italy. His father was
Lodovico di Leonardo di Buonarotti di Simoni, a local magistrate;
his mother was Francesca di Neri del Miniato di Siena. His family,
the Buonarroti di Simoni, were descendants of the Countess Matilda
of Tuscany, and considered minor nobility. They are mentioned in the
Florentine chronicles as early as the XII century. However,
Michelangelo's parents spent little time with him, and he spent much
of his childhood with a sculptor and his wife in the town of
Settignano, where his father owned a marble quarry.
was thus quite natural that the young Michelangelo would want to
pursue a career in art, despite his father's vehement, and sometimes
violent, opposition to the idea. In 1488, at the age of 13,
Michelangelo entered the workshop of Domenico Ghirlandaio, which
speaks highly of his budding talent, as Ghirlandaio was by this time
an established and well-known painter, and could afford to be picky
with his apprentices. Thus, Michelangelo came under the influence of
Masaccio, because Ghirlandaio not only looked to Masaccio for ideas
on depicting religious scenes, but actually imitated certain
elements of his designs. After less than a year, on Ghirlandaio's
recommendation, Michelangelo moved to the academy set up by Lorenzo
the Magnificent. From 1489 till 1492, he lived in the Palazzo Medici
in Via Larga, where he could study “antique and good statues” and
could meet the sophisticated humanists and writers of the Medici
circle, such as Pico della Mirandolla, Marsilio Ficino and Angelo
During this time, Michelangelo painted Madonna of the Steps
(1490-1492) and Battle of the Centaurs (1491-1492).
Lorenzo the Magnificent died in 1492, and in 1494 the Medici
were expelled from Florence. Under the brief rule of the priest
Savonarola, whose ascetic religion and republican ideas influenced
the young man deeply, Michelangelo was treated somewhat coldly
because of his association with the Medici. However, he was allowed
to go on with his work.
In 1494, Michelangelo left Florence and went first to Venice and
then to Bologna, where he would absorb their art and culture. In
1496, he eventually arrived in Rome and stayed there until 1501. He
would visit Florence briefly several times during this period but
always leave quickly, alarmed by the city's instability.
Between 1497 and 1499, he carved the Pieta for the Vatican, one of
his most famous works. Considered by contemporaries (and many modern
historians) the perfect union of Christian emotion with classical
form, the sculpture would bring him widespread recognition and fame.
Returning, famous, to Florence in 1501, Michelangelo was
commissioned by the new republican government to carve a colossal
David, symbol of resistance and independence. Arguably his most
famous work, the statue would finally establish his reputation as a
In 1504, the Signoria of Florence commissioned
Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo to
paint the walls of the Grand Council Chamber in the Palazzo Vecchio,
the seat of government of Florence. Leonardo worked on the Battle of
Anghiari and Michelangelo on the the Battle of Cascina. Florence was
immediately divided into two camps passionately supporting one or
the other. Neither work was finished. Michelangelo's did not go any
further than the cartoon for the picture, which also was destroyed
in the civil conflict of 1512.
In 1505, Michelangelo was summoned by the new Pope Julius II to Rome
and entrusted with the design of the pope’s tomb. The original
grandiose project was never carried out. Although only 3 of the 40
life-size or larger figures were executed – Moses, Rebellious Slave
(unfinished), Dying Slave – this commission dominated most of the
rest of the artist's life. The constantly interrupted work on the
tomb ended only in 1547, 40 years and 5 revised contracts later.
Victory and Crouching Boy were also carved for one of the projects
of the tomb. The final version of it is in San Pietro in Vincoli,
1508, Julius transferred the artist to paint the Sistine Chapel
ceiling. Michelangelo accepted the commission, but right from the
start he considered Pope Julius’ plans altogether too simple. It was
something unheard of for a patron to allow his own plans to be
completely changed by an artist. In this case, moreover, the change
of plan meant that the work would have an entirely different meaning
from the original one.
Since he was not very familiar with the technique of fresco,
Michelangelo needed the help of several Florentine painters, as well
as their advice. But his ambition to produce a work that would be
absolutely exceptional made it impossible for him to work with
others, and in the end he did the whole thing himself. This was
something quite unprecedented. Not only was the work so vast in
scale, but no artist hitherto had ever undertaken a whole cycle of
frescoes without an efficient group of helpers. Michelangelo helped
create his own legend, complaining of the enormous difficulties of
the enterprise. In his sonnet On the Painting of the Sistine Chapel,
he described all the discomforts involved in painting a ceiling, how
much he hated the place, and how he despaired of being a painter at
In order to fulfill the task, Michelangelo had to design his own
scaffold and, after traditional plaster failed on him, had to use a
new type of plaster, which was mixed for him by one of his
assisstants. The plaster entered Italian building tradition and is
still used today.
the death of Julius II in 1513, the two Medici popes, Leo X
(1513-21) and Clement VII (1523-34) preferred to keep Michelangelo
well away from Rome and from the tomb of Julius II, so that he could
work on the Medici church of San Lorenzo in Florence. This project
was aborted too, although Michelangelo was able to fulfill some of
his architectural and sculptural projects in the Laurentian Library
and the New Sacristy, or Medici Chapel, of San Lorenzo. The Medici
Chapel fell just short of being completed: two of the Medici tombs
intended for the Chapel were installed, the Tomb of Giuliano de'
Medici and Tomb of Lorenzo de' Medici, and for the 3rd tomb,
Michelangelo had carved his last great Madonna (unfinished) when he
left Florence forever in 1534.
was during this period, while he was planning the tombs in the New
Sacristy, that German Landknechts under Charles V sacked Rome in
1527. Florentines used this opportunity to overthrow the Medici and
restore the republic, as a result of which, Florence was besieged
shortly thereafter. Michelangelo used his expertise in engineering
to help fortify the city, but despite this, Florence fell back into
Medici hands in 1530. During the siege, he also managed to get away
for a while to look after his own property. Michelangelo's alignment
with the Florentine republicans naturally incurred the displeasure
of Alessandro de Medici, but the latter was murdered in 1537 by
Lorenzino, who was more sympathetic towards the artist. Michelangelo
commemorated this event in his bust of Brutus.
In September 1534, Michelangelo settled down finally in Rome, and he
was to stay there for the rest of his life, despite flattering
invitations from Cosimo I Medici to return to Florence. The new
Pope, a Farnese who took the name of Paul III, confirmed the
commission that Clement VII had already given him for a large fresco
of The Last Judgment over the altar of the Sistine Chapel. Far from
being an extension of the ceiling, this was an entirely different
work and a completely new statement. Over 20 years had passed
between the 2 projects, full of political events and personal
sorrows. The mood of The Last Judgment is somber; the naked Christ
is not a figure of consolation, but one of vengeance and
retribution, and even the Saved struggle painfully towards
Salvation. The work was officially unveiled on 31 October 1541.
last paintings were frescos in the Cappella Paolina just beside the
Sistine Chapel, completed in 1550, when he was 75 years old: The
Conversion of Paul and The Crucifixion of St. Peter.
Michelangelo's crowning achievements, however, were architectural.
In 1537-39, he received a commission to reshape the Campidoglio, the
top of Rome's Capitoline Hill, into a square. Although not completed
until long after his death, the project was carried out essentially
as he had designed it. In 1546, Michelangelo was appointed architect
to St. Peter's. The cathedral was constructed according to Donato
Bramante’s plan, but Michelangelo became ultimately responsible for
its dome and the exterior of the altar end of the building.
He continued in his last years to write poetry, and carved the two
extraordinary, haunting and pathetic Late Pietas. He was wokring on
one of them, The Rondanini Pieta in Milan, just 6 days before his
The artist died on 18th of February 1564 at the age of 89 and was
buried in Florence, according to his wishes.
Michelangelo's prestige stands very high nowadays, as it did in his
own age. He went out of favor for a time, especially in the 17th
century, on account of a general preference for the works of
Raphael, Correggio and Titian; but with the early Romantics in
England, and the return to the Gothic, he made an impressive return.
In the 20th century the unfinished, unresolved creations of the
great master evoke especially great interest, maybe because in the
20th century, the aesthetic focus is no longer only the finished
piece of art, but also the inextricable relationship between the
artist's personality and his work.
The Last Judgement, supposed to happen on the last day
of creation, is described most vividly in Matthew 25:
When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy
angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his
glory. And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he
shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth
his sheep from the goats. And he shall set the sheep on his
right hand, but the goats on the left. Then shall the King
say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my
Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the
foundation of the world. (Matthew 25:31-34) Then shall he
say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye
cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and
his angels. (Matthew 25:41) And these shall go away into
everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal.
The work was officially unveiled on 31 October 1541, and was a
scandal. Everyone accused Michelangelo of blasphemy and
sacrilege. The nu figures and their poses teased and
irritated the authorities and the artist's enemies, and they
demanded the fresco be destroyed. However, the Pope Paul III
was adamant that the fresco should stay. Pope Paul IV,
Paul's III successor, instructed the painter Daniel da
Volterra to dress the figures, where possible, or at least
clothe the most offensive parts of their bodies.
Michelangelo impassively watched the mutilation of his work,
commenting: “Tell His Holiness that this is a small matter,
which can easily be rectified. Let His Holiness attend to
the reform of the world: reforming a painting is easily
done.” You can see a copy of the original fresco before it
1. Christ and the Virgin. Michelangelo's Christ scandalized
the contemporaries because he is very young and handsome,
bears no beard, and is not seated as described in the Bible.
2. In the group on Christ's left the central figure is St.
John the Baptist. Behind him a group of women – saints,
virgins and martyrs.
3. In the group on the Christ's right is St. Peter, he is
offering two huge keys to Christ, emblems of the power to
bind and to release men from sin that had been delegated to
4. Below Christ on the left is the figure of St. Lawrence,
holding his gridiron.
5. Below Christ on the right is the figure of St. Bartholomew,
with the skin that was stripped from him when he was
martyred. The skin is a self-portrait of the artist.
6. Left-hand lunette: angels lifting up the cross.
7. Right-hand lunette: angels, lifting up “the column of the
8. Right part of the fresco below the group of saints: The
resurrection of the body. The damned are being sucked down
Michelangelo's David sculpted from
1500 to 1505, is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture and
one of Michelangelo's two greatest works of sculpture, along
with the Pietà. However, it is the David alone that almost
certainly holds the title of the most recognizable statue in
the history of art. It has become regarded as a symbol both
of strength and youthful human beauty. The 5.17 meter (17
ft) marble statue portrays the Biblical King David at the
moment that he decides to do battle with Goliath. It came to
symbolise the Florentine Republic, an independent city state
threatened on all sides by more powerful rival states. This
interpretation was also encouraged by the original setting
of the sculpture outside the Palazzo della Signoria, the
seat of civic government in Florence. The completed
sculpture was unveiled on 8 September 1504.
The history of Michelangelo's David precedes his work on it
from 1501-1504, as far back as 1464. At that time the
Overseers of the Office of Works of the Duomo (Operai),
comprised mostly of members of the influential woolen cloth
guild, the Arte della Lana, had plans to commission a series
of twelve large Old Testament sculptures for the buttresses
of the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore. Until then only
two had been created independently by Donatello and his
assistant, Agostino di Duccio. Eager to continue their
project, in 1464 they again contracted Agostino to create a
sculpture of David. He only got as far as beginning to shape
the legs, feet and chest of the figure, roughing out some
drapery and probably gouging a hole between the legs. His
association with the project, for reasons unknown, ceased
with the death of his master Donatello in 1466, and Antonio
Rossellino was commissioned to take up where Agostino had
contract was terminated soon thereafter, and the block of
marble originally from a quarry in Carrara, a town in the
Apuan Alps in northern Italy, remained neglected for
twenty-five years, all the while exposed to the elements in
the yard of the cathedral workshop. This was of great
concern to the Operai authorities, as such a large piece of
marble was both costly, and represented a large amount of
labor and difficulty in its transportation to Florence. In
1500, an inventory of the cathedral workshops described the
piece as, "a certain figure of marble called David, badly
blocked out and supine." A year later, documents showed that
the Operai were determined to find an artist who could take
this large piece of marble and turn it into a finished work
of art. They ordered the block of stone, which they called
The Giant, "raised on its feet" so that a master experienced
in this kind of work might examine it and express an
opinion. Though Leonardo da Vinci and others were consulted,
it was young Michelangelo, only twenty-six years old, who
convinced the Operai that he deserved the commission. On
August 16, 1501, Michelangelo was given the official
contract to undertake this challenging new task. He began
carving the statue early in the morning on Monday, September
13, a month after he was awarded the contract. He would work
on the massive biblical hero for a little more than three
Michelangelo's David differs from previous representations of
the subject in that David is depicted before his battle with
Goliath and not after the giant's defeat (as he is in
Donatello's and Verrocchio's versions, produced earlier).
Instead of being shown victorious over a foe much larger
than he, David looks tense and ready for combat. His veins
bulge out of his lowered right hand and the twist of his
body effectively conveys to the viewer the feeling that he
is in motion. The statue is meant to show David after he has
made the decision to fight Goliath but before the battle has
actually taken place. It is a representation of the moment
between conscious choice and conscious action [citation
standing in the original location of the David, in front of
the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence.On January 25, 1504, when the
sculpture was nearing completion, a committee of Florentine
artists including Leonardo da Vinci and Sandro Botticelli
met to decide on an appropriate site for the David. The
majority, led by Giuliano da Sangallo and supported by
Leonardo and Piero di Cosimo, among others, believed that
due to the imperfections in the marble the sculpture should
be placed under the roof of the Loggia dei Lanzi on Piazza
della Signoria. Only a rather minor view, supported by
Botticelli, believed that the sculpture should be situated
on or near the cathedral. Eventually the David was placed in
front of the entrance to the Palazzo Vecchio, also on Piazza
della Signoria, replacing Donatello's bronze sculpture of
Judith and Holofernes, which embodied a comparable theme of
heroic resistance. It took four days to move the statue from
Michelangelo's workshop onto the Piazza della Signoria. In
1504, the Florentines added a gilded wreath to his head and
a gilt-bronze belt to cover his nudity. At that time the
supporting tree stump was also gilded.
To protect it from damage, the sculpture was moved in 1873 to
the Accademia Gallery in Florence, where it attracts many
visitors. A replica was placed in the Piazza della Signoria
In 1991 a vandal attacked the statue with a hammer, damaging
the toes of the left foot before being restrained. The
samples obtained from that incident allowed scientists to
determine that the marble used by Michelangelo was obtained
from the Fantiscritti quarries in Miseglia, the central of
three small valleys in Carrara. The block was quarried 40
years prior to carving of David. In that time period, two
other sculptors, Agostino di Duccio and Antonio Rossellino,
attempted to carve from it, but both abandoned their
projects due to lack of experience and skill and a fault
that lay through the block of marble. The marble in question
contains many microscopic holes that cause it to deteriorate
faster than other marbles. It is believed that because the
quality of the marble is rather mediocre, Michelangelo
obtained the block for free. Because of the marble's
degradation, a controversy occurred in 2003, when the statue
underwent its first major cleaning since 1843. Some experts
opposed the use of water to clean the statue, fearing
Style and detail
Detail of the David.Michelangelo's
David is based on the artistic discipline of disegno, which
is built on knowledge of the male human form. Under this
discipline, sculpture is considered to be the finest form of
art because it mimics divine creation. Because Michelangelo
adhered to the concepts of disegno, he worked under the
premise that the image of David was already in the block of
stone he was working on — in much the same way as the human
soul is thought by some to be found within the physical
body. It is also an example of the contrapposto style of
posing the human figure.
The proportions are not quite true to the human form; the head
and upper body are somewhat larger than the proportions of
the lower body. While some have suggested that this is of
the mannerist style, the most commonly accepted explanation
is that the statue was originally intended to be placed on a
church façade or high pedestal, and that the proportions
would appear correct when the statue was viewed from some
distance below. Others suggest the head and hands were
created larger to represent thinking with the brain and
working with the hands. While the genitals were created
smaller to imply that David was not allowing himself to make
decisions with pleasure in mind.
There was controversy over the statue's supposed Biblical
reference, since the statue seemed to portray an
uncircumcised male, whereas the historical King David was
undoubtedly circumcised. Because of this, some art
historians believed that "David" was actually the name of
the model who posed for the statue, rather than King David
himself, and that Michelangelo claimed the Biblical
reference to make it acceptable to the Christian world. It
was also suggested that this was a conscious decision in
Michelangelo's endeavor to emulate the ancient Greek
aesthetic ideals, which regarded the circumcised penis as
Replica of the statue of David in
the Raptis Plaza, Surfers Paradise.A replica of the statue
was offered as a gift by the municipality of Florence to the
municipality of Jerusalem to mark the 3,000th anniversary of
David's conquest of the city. The proposed gift evoked a
storm in Jerusalem, where religious factions urged the gift
be declined, because the naked figure was considered
pornographic. Finally, a compromise was reached and another,
fully-clad replica of a different statue was donated
There are many full-size replicas of the statue around the
world, from a plaster cast copy in London's Victoria and
Albert Museum, to the centrepiece of a shopping mall in
Surfers Paradise, Australia. There is also a replica in
Sioux Falls, South Dakota. One resident of Los Angeles,
California, has decorated his house and grounds with
twenty-three reduced scale replicas of the statue. There is
also a copy gracing the "Appian Way Shops" at Caesars Palace
in Las Vegas. A bronze casting from the original marble
statue also stands in Delaware Park in Buffalo, New York.
Another bronze casting is the centerpiece in the courtyard
of the John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art in Sarasota,
Florida. The Philadelphia Museum of Art also has a replica,
albeit quite a rough one.
Surprisingly there is also a replica placed in Pune, India. It
is installed at the Administrative Building of the Pune
University at Aundh Road. It is erected next to a statue of
a half naked woman, that seems to depict Bathsheba. The
statue of David there is part of the legacy that the British
left when India gained its independence.
When Michelangelo was invited to paint the ceiling of
the Sistine Chapel, the lower walls of it were already
decorated with scenes from the lives of Moses and Christ,
executed by the Florentine and Umbrian artists Botticelli
(The Temptation of Christ (1481-1482), Scenes from the Life
of Moses (1481-1482), The Punishment of Korah (1481-1482)),
Cosimo Rosselli, Piero di Cosimo, Domenico Ghirlandaio (The
Calling of St. Peter), Luca Signorelli, Pinturicchio and
Pietro Perugino (The Delivery of the Keys (1482)). Above
these frescoes, which occupied straightforward rectangular
fields, Michelangelo created his masterpiece.
The twelve existing windows along the lateral walls of the
chapel he integrated by means of twelve lunettes capped with
twelve spandrels. In them he depicted ancestors of Christ:
Azor and Sadok; Josias, Jechonias and Salathiel; Ezekias,
Manasses and Amon; Asa, Josaphat and Joram; Jesse, David and
Solomon; Naasson; Aminadab; Salmon, Booz and Obed; Roboam
and Abia; Ozias, Joatham and Achaz; Zorobabel; Abiud and
Eliakim; Achim and Eliud; Jacob and Joseph; Eleazar and
Between these he placed the large seated figures of the
Prophets and Sibyls: The Prophet Zechariah, The Sibyl of
Delphi, The Prophet Isiah, The Cumaean Sibyl, The Prophet
Daniel, The Libyan Sibyl, The Prophet Jonah, The Persian
Sibyl, The Prophet Jeremiah, The Erythraean Sibyl, The
Prophet Ezekiel, The Prophet Joel.
The four corner frescoes, pendentives, are: David and Goliath;
Judith and Holofernes; The Punishment of Haman; The Brazen
The entire central section of the ceiling he crossed with
painted arches, dividing the ceiling into nine pictorial
fields. The arches are supported at either end by painted
columns. Between the arches, Michelangelo skillfully grouped
the nine central fields thus created into three triptychs:
The Creation of the World, The Creation and Fall of Man, and
The Story of Noah.
The Creation of the World consists of three frescoes: The
Separation of Light and Darkness, The Creation of the Sun
and Moon, The Separation of Land and Water.
The Creation and Fall of Man includes the following frescoes:
The Creation of Adam, The Creation of Eve, The Fall and The
Expulsion from Paradise.
The Story of Noah consists of frescoes: The Sacrifice of Noah,
The Flood, The Drunkenness of Noah.
He thereby organized the fields into a rhythmical sequence in
which a large picture is flanked by two smaller ones, a
device which dramatically emphasizes the four main scenes:
The Creation of Sun and Moon, The Creation of Adam, The Fall
and the Expulsion from Paradise, and The Flood.
the meeting of the cornices are twenty Ignudi, paintings of
naked young men, who have no connection whatsoever to the
theme of the rest of the project. Michelangelo's reasons for
including them are unknown, but it is mostly likely that
they were simply aesthetic: Michangelo admired the male
figure and often used male models even for his depictions of
The extraordinary thing about Michelangelo's design is that it
is designed and articulated as a single unit. The groups are
framed in a system of cornices in such a way that they
produce the effect of enormous three-dimensional plaques and
cameos. At the same time, not a single one of the frescoes
is meant to stand on its own; and each one is perfectly
integrated to form the unity of the whole.
2- Madonna of the Stairs. c.1490. Marble. Casa Buonarroti,
3- Michelangelo. Battle of the Centaurs. 1492. Low relief,
marble. Casa Buonarroti, Florence, Italy
4- Crucifix from the Santo Spirito Convent. c.1492.
Polychrome wood. Casa Buonarroti, Florence, Italy
5- Saint Proculus. 1494-1495. Marble. Basilica of San
Domenico, Bologna, Italy
6- Bacchus. 1496-1497. Marble. Museo Nazionale del Bargello,
7- Pieta. 1499. Marble. St. Peter's, Vatican
8- Pieta (detail). 1499. Marble. St. Peter's, Vatican.
9- Pieta (detail). 1499. Marble. St. Peter's, Vatican.
10- David. 1501-1504. Marble. Galleria dell'Accademia,
11- David (detail). 1501-1504. Marble. Galleria
dell'Accademia, Florence, Italy
12- Tondo Pitti - Virgin and Child with the Young St. John.
1503-1504. Low relief, marble. Museo Nazionale, Bargello,
13- Tondo Taddei 1503-1504. Low relief, marble. Royal
Academy of Arts, London, UK.
Virgin and Child. c.1504. Marble. Onze Lieve-Vrouw, Bruges,
15- Aristotile da Sangallo. The Battle of Cascina, copy
after Michelangelo, central section of the cartoon. c.1542.
panel. Holkham Hall, Norfolk, UK.
16- Doni Tondo - The Holy Family with St. John the Baptist.
c.1504-1506. Oil on panel. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence,
17- The interior of the Sistine Chapel showing the ceiling
fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
18- Partial view of the the frescoes in the Sisine Chapel.
1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
19- The Separation of Light and Darkness. 1508-1512. Fresco.
Sistine Chapel, Vatican
20- The Separation of Land and Water. 1508-1512. Fresco.
Sistine Chapel, Vatican
21- The Creation of Adam. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel,
22- The Creation of Eve. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel,
23- The Fall of Man and the Expulsion from the Garden of
Eden. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatic
24- The Sacrifice of Noah. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine
25- The Flood. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
26- The Flood (detail). 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel,
The Flood (detail). 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel,
28- The Drunkenness of Noah. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine
29- The Sibyl of Delphi. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel,
30- The Libyan Sibyl. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel,
31- The Prophet Jeremiah. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel,
32- The Prophet Zechariah. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine
33- Judith and Holofernes. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine
34- The Punishment of Haman. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine
35- The Ancestors of Christ: Josias, Jechonias and
Salathiel. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
36- The Ancestors of Christ: Jesse, David and Solomon.
1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
37- Ignudi. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
38- The Tomb of the Pope Julius II. 1542-1545. Marble. San
Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, Italy
39- Moses. c.1513-1516. Marble. San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome,
40- Dying Slave. c.1513-1516. Marble. The Louvre, Paris,
41- Rebellious Slave. c.1513-1516. Marble. The Louvre,
42- Michelangelo. Rebellious Slave. c.1513-1516. Marble. The
Louvre, Paris, France
43- Victory. c.1520-1525. Marble. Palazzo Vecchio, Rome,
44- Crouching Boy. c.1524. Marble. The hermitage, St.
45- Tomb of Lorenzo de' Medici. 1526-1531. Marble. Medici
Chapel, San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy
46- Tomb of Lorenzo de' Medici (detail). Lorenzo de' Medici.
1526-1531. Marble. Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo, Florence,
47- Tomb of Lorenzo de' Medici (detail). Dusk. 1526-1531.
Marble. Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy
48- Tomb of Lorenzo de' Medici (detail). Dawn. 1526-1531.
Marble. Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy
49- Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici. 1526-1531. Marble. Medici
Chapel, San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy.
50- Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici (detail). Giuliano de'
Medici. 1526-1531. Marble. Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo,
51- Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici (detail). Giuliano de'
Medici. 1526-1531. Marble. Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo,
52- Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici (detail). Night. 1526-1531.
Marble. Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy.
53- Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici (detail). Day. 1526-1531.
Marble. Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy.
54- Madonna. 1521-1534. Marble. Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo,
55- The Last Judgment. 1534-1541. Fresco. Sistine Chapel,
56- The Last Judgment (detail). 1534-1541. Fresco. Sistine
57- The Last Judgment (detail). 1534-1541. Fresco. Sistine
58- The Last Judgment (detail). 1534-1541. Fresco. Sistine
59- The Last Judgment (detail). 1534-1541. Fresco. Sistine
60- The Last Judgment (detail). 1534-1541. Fresco. Sistine
61- The Last Judgment (detail). 1534-1541. Fresco. Sistine
62- The Last Judgment (detail). 1534-1541. Fresco. Sistine
63- Brutus. 1540. Marble. Museo Nazionale del Bargello,
64- Pieta. c.1550. Marble. Museo dell'Opera del Duomo,
65- Pieta Rondanini, unfinished. 1564. Marble. Castello
Sforzesco, Milan, Italy
66- Conversion of Saint Paul. 1542-1545. Frescoes. Pauline
67- Crucifixion of Saint Peter. 1546-1550. Frescoes. Pauline
68- Porta Pia. Begun 1562. Rome, Italy.
69- Capitol, facade of the Conservators' Place.Rome, Italy
70- Vestibule of the Laurentian Library. 1524-1559.
71- St. Peter's. 1546-1564. Rome, Italy.
72- Capitoline Hill. Piazza Campidoglio, Rome, Italy