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Michelangelo - Biography

Michelangelo Buonarroti di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni

Michelangelo (1475-1564) - Michelangelo Painting   PAINTERS

MICHELANGELO BİYOGRAFİ                             MICHELANGELO BIOGRAPHY

Michelangelo Resimleri                                      Michelangelo Painting

 David Sculpture. 1501-1504. Marble. Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence, ItalyMichelangelo at Artprice. To look at auction records, find Michelangelo's works in upcoming auctions, check price levels and indexes for his works, read his biography and view his signature, access the Artprice database.

Michelangelo is certainly one of the most representative artists of the XVI century: a sculptor, painter, architect, and poet; a true Renaissance man in the best tradition of his contemporary, Leonardo da Vinci. He lived to a great age, and enjoyed great fame in his lifetime. Titian, and Venetian painting generally, was very much influenced by his vision, and he is responsible in large measure for the development of Mannerism.

Michelangelo di Ludovico di Lionardo di Buonarroti Simoni was born in 1475, in a village called Caprese Michelangelo, in the Casention area of Arrezo province, Tuscany, Italy. His father was Lodovico di Leonardo di Buonarotti di Simoni, a local magistrate; his mother was Francesca di Neri del Miniato di Siena. His family, the Buonarroti di Simoni, were descendants of the Countess Matilda of Tuscany, and considered minor nobility. They are mentioned in the Florentine chronicles as early as the XII century. However, Michelangelo's parents spent little time with him, and he spent much of his childhood with a sculptor and his wife in the town of Settignano, where his father owned a marble quarry.

Rebellious Slave. c.1513-1516. Marble. The Louvre, Paris, FranceIt was thus quite natural that the young Michelangelo would want to pursue a career in art, despite his father's vehement, and sometimes violent, opposition to the idea. In 1488, at the age of 13, Michelangelo entered the workshop of Domenico Ghirlandaio, which speaks highly of his budding talent, as Ghirlandaio was by this time an established and well-known painter, and could afford to be picky with his apprentices. Thus, Michelangelo came under the influence of Masaccio, because Ghirlandaio not only looked to Masaccio for ideas on depicting religious scenes, but actually imitated certain elements of his designs. After less than a year, on Ghirlandaio's recommendation, Michelangelo moved to the academy set up by Lorenzo the Magnificent. From 1489 till 1492, he lived in the Palazzo Medici in Via Larga, where he could study “antique and good statues” and could meet the sophisticated humanists and writers of the Medici circle, such as Pico della Mirandolla, Marsilio Ficino and Angelo Poliziano.


During this time, Michelangelo painted Madonna of the Steps (1490-1492) and Battle of the Centaurs (1491-1492).

Sistin Klisesi (chapel), Fresko, 1508, Vatican

Lorenzo the Magnificent died in 1492, and in 1494 the Medici were expelled from Florence. Under the brief rule of the priest Savonarola, whose ascetic religion and republican ideas influenced the young man deeply, Michelangelo was treated somewhat coldly because of his association with the Medici. However, he was allowed to go on with his work.
In 1494, Michelangelo left Florence and went first to Venice and then to Bologna, where he would absorb their art and culture. In 1496, he eventually arrived in Rome and stayed there until 1501. He would visit Florence briefly several times during this period but always leave quickly, alarmed by the city's instability.
Between 1497 and 1499, he carved the Pieta for the Vatican, one of his most famous works. Considered by contemporaries (and many modern historians) the perfect union of Christian emotion with classical form, the sculpture would bring him widespread recognition and fame.
Returning, famous, to Florence in 1501, Michelangelo was commissioned by the new republican government to carve a colossal David, symbol of resistance and independence. Arguably his most famous work, the statue would finally establish his reputation as a sculptor extraordinaire.

65- Pieta Rondanini, unfinished. 1564. Marble. Castello Sforzesco, Milan, Italy
In 1504, the Signoria of Florence commissioned
Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo to paint the walls of the Grand Council Chamber in the Palazzo Vecchio, the seat of government of Florence. Leonardo worked on the Battle of Anghiari and Michelangelo on the the Battle of Cascina. Florence was immediately divided into two camps passionately supporting one or the other. Neither work was finished. Michelangelo's did not go any further than the cartoon for the picture, which also was destroyed in the civil conflict of 1512.
In 1505, Michelangelo was summoned by the new Pope Julius II to Rome and entrusted with the design of the pope’s tomb. The original grandiose project was never carried out. Although only 3 of the 40 life-size or larger figures were executed – Moses, Rebellious Slave (unfinished), Dying Slave – this commission dominated most of the rest of the artist's life. The constantly interrupted work on the tomb ended only in 1547, 40 years and 5 revised contracts later. Victory and Crouching Boy were also carved for one of the projects of the tomb. The final version of it is in San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome.

Madonna. 1521-1534. Marble. Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy.In 1508, Julius transferred the artist to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling. Michelangelo accepted the commission, but right from the start he considered Pope Julius’ plans altogether too simple. It was something unheard of for a patron to allow his own plans to be completely changed by an artist. In this case, moreover, the change of plan meant that the work would have an entirely different meaning from the original one.
Since he was not very familiar with the technique of fresco, Michelangelo needed the help of several Florentine painters, as well as their advice. But his ambition to produce a work that would be absolutely exceptional made it impossible for him to work with others, and in the end he did the whole thing himself. This was something quite unprecedented. Not only was the work so vast in scale, but no artist hitherto had ever undertaken a whole cycle of frescoes without an efficient group of helpers. Michelangelo helped create his own legend, complaining of the enormous difficulties of the enterprise. In his sonnet On the Painting of the Sistine Chapel, he described all the discomforts involved in painting a ceiling, how much he hated the place, and how he despaired of being a painter at all.
In order to fulfill the task, Michelangelo had to design his own scaffold and, after traditional plaster failed on him, had to use a new type of plaster, which was mixed for him by one of his assisstants. The plaster entered Italian building tradition and is still used today.


Madonna of the Stairs. c.1490. Marble. Casa Buonarroti, Florence, ItalyAfter the death of Julius II in 1513, the two Medici popes, Leo X (1513-21) and Clement VII (1523-34) preferred to keep Michelangelo well away from Rome and from the tomb of Julius II, so that he could work on the Medici church of San Lorenzo in Florence. This project was aborted too, although Michelangelo was able to fulfill some of his architectural and sculptural projects in the Laurentian Library and the New Sacristy, or Medici Chapel, of San Lorenzo. The Medici Chapel fell just short of being completed: two of the Medici tombs intended for the Chapel were installed, the Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici and Tomb of Lorenzo de' Medici, and for the 3rd tomb, Michelangelo had carved his last great Madonna (unfinished) when he left Florence forever in 1534.

Battle of the Centaurs. 1492. Low relief, marble. Casa Buonarroti, Florence, ItalyIt was during this period, while he was planning the tombs in the New Sacristy, that German Landknechts under Charles V sacked Rome in 1527. Florentines used this opportunity to overthrow the Medici and restore the republic, as a result of which, Florence was besieged shortly thereafter. Michelangelo used his expertise in engineering to help fortify the city, but despite this, Florence fell back into Medici hands in 1530. During the siege, he also managed to get away for a while to look after his own property. Michelangelo's alignment with the Florentine republicans naturally incurred the displeasure of Alessandro de Medici, but the latter was murdered in 1537 by Lorenzino, who was more sympathetic towards the artist. Michelangelo commemorated this event in his bust of Brutus.
In September 1534, Michelangelo settled down finally in Rome, and he was to stay there for the rest of his life, despite flattering invitations from Cosimo I Medici to return to Florence. The new Pope, a Farnese who took the name of Paul III, confirmed the commission that Clement VII had already given him for a large fresco of The Last Judgment over the altar of the Sistine Chapel. Far from being an extension of the ceiling, this was an entirely different work and a completely new statement. Over 20 years had passed between the 2 projects, full of political events and personal sorrows. The mood of The Last Judgment is somber; the naked Christ is not a figure of consolation, but one of vengeance and retribution, and even the Saved struggle painfully towards Salvation. The work was officially unveiled on 31 October 1541.


Crucifix from the Santo Spirito Convent. c.1492. Polychrome wood. Casa Buonarroti, Florence, ItalyMichelangelo's last paintings were frescos in the Cappella Paolina just beside the Sistine Chapel, completed in 1550, when he was 75 years old: The Conversion of Paul and The Crucifixion of St. Peter.
Michelangelo's crowning achievements, however, were architectural. In 1537-39, he received a commission to reshape the Campidoglio, the top of Rome's Capitoline Hill, into a square. Although not completed until long after his death, the project was carried out essentially as he had designed it. In 1546, Michelangelo was appointed architect to St. Peter's. The cathedral was constructed according to Donato Bramante’s plan, but Michelangelo became ultimately responsible for its dome and the exterior of the altar end of the building.
He continued in his last years to write poetry, and carved the two extraordinary, haunting and pathetic Late Pietas. He was wokring on one of them, The Rondanini Pieta in Milan, just 6 days before his death.
The artist died on 18th of February 1564 at the age of 89 and was buried in Florence, according to his wishes.
Michelangelo's prestige stands very high nowadays, as it did in his own age. He went out of favor for a time, especially in the 17th century, on account of a general preference for the works of Raphael, Correggio and Titian; but with the early Romantics in England, and the return to the Gothic, he made an impressive return. In the 20th century the unfinished, unresolved creations of the great master evoke especially great interest, maybe because in the 20th century, the aesthetic focus is no longer only the finished piece of art, but also the inextricable relationship between the artist's personality and his work.

Source: http://www.abcgallery.com/M/michelangelo/michelangelobio.html

The Last Judgment. 1534-1541. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, VaticanThe Last Judgment

The Last Judgement, supposed to happen on the last day of creation, is described most vividly in Matthew 25:

When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory. And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats. And he shall set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left. Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. (Matthew 25:31-34) Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels. (Matthew 25:41) And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal. (Matthew 25:46)

The work was officially unveiled on 31 October 1541, and was a scandal. Everyone accused Michelangelo of blasphemy and sacrilege. The nu figures and their poses teased and irritated the authorities and the artist's enemies, and they demanded the fresco be destroyed. However, the Pope Paul III was adamant that the fresco should stay. Pope Paul IV, Paul's III successor, instructed the painter Daniel da Volterra to dress the figures, where possible, or at least clothe the most offensive parts of their bodies. Michelangelo impassively watched the mutilation of his work, commenting: “Tell His Holiness that this is a small matter, which can easily be rectified. Let His Holiness attend to the reform of the world: reforming a painting is easily done.” You can see a copy of the original fresco before it was "dressed".

1. Christ and the Virgin. Michelangelo's Christ scandalized the contemporaries because he is very young and handsome, bears no beard, and is not seated as described in the Bible.
2. In the group on Christ's left the central figure is St. John the Baptist. Behind him a group of women – saints, virgins and martyrs.
3. In the group on the Christ's right is St. Peter, he is offering two huge keys to Christ, emblems of the power to bind and to release men from sin that had been delegated to the Popes.
4. Below Christ on the left is the figure of St. Lawrence, holding his gridiron.
5. Below Christ on the right is the figure of St. Bartholomew, with the skin that was stripped from him when he was martyred. The skin is a self-portrait of the artist.
6. Left-hand lunette: angels lifting up the cross.
7. Right-hand lunette: angels, lifting up “the column of the flagellation”.
8. Right part of the fresco below the group of saints: The resurrection of the body. The damned are being sucked down into hell.

 David Sculpture. 1501-1504. Marble. Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence, ItalyDavid Sculpture

Michelangelo's David sculpted from 1500 to 1505, is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture and one of Michelangelo's two greatest works of sculpture, along with the Pietà. However, it is the David alone that almost certainly holds the title of the most recognizable statue in the history of art. It has become regarded as a symbol both of strength and youthful human beauty. The 5.17 meter (17 ft) marble statue portrays the Biblical King David at the moment that he decides to do battle with Goliath. It came to symbolise the Florentine Republic, an independent city state threatened on all sides by more powerful rival states. This interpretation was also encouraged by the original setting of the sculpture outside the Palazzo della Signoria, the seat of civic government in Florence. The completed sculpture was unveiled on 8 September 1504.

The history of Michelangelo's David precedes his work on it from 1501-1504, as far back as 1464. At that time the Overseers of the Office of Works of the Duomo (Operai), comprised mostly of members of the influential woolen cloth guild, the Arte della Lana, had plans to commission a series of twelve large Old Testament sculptures for the buttresses of the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore. Until then only two had been created independently by Donatello and his assistant, Agostino di Duccio. Eager to continue their project, in 1464 they again contracted Agostino to create a sculpture of David. He only got as far as beginning to shape the legs, feet and chest of the figure, roughing out some drapery and probably gouging a hole between the legs. His association with the project, for reasons unknown, ceased with the death of his master Donatello in 1466, and Antonio Rossellino was commissioned to take up where Agostino had left off.

David (detail). 1501-1504. Marble. Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence, ItalyRossellino's contract was terminated soon thereafter, and the block of marble originally from a quarry in Carrara, a town in the Apuan Alps in northern Italy, remained neglected for twenty-five years, all the while exposed to the elements in the yard of the cathedral workshop. This was of great concern to the Operai authorities, as such a large piece of marble was both costly, and represented a large amount of labor and difficulty in its transportation to Florence. In 1500, an inventory of the cathedral workshops described the piece as, "a certain figure of marble called David, badly blocked out and supine." A year later, documents showed that the Operai were determined to find an artist who could take this large piece of marble and turn it into a finished work of art. They ordered the block of stone, which they called The Giant, "raised on its feet" so that a master experienced in this kind of work might examine it and express an opinion. Though Leonardo da Vinci and others were consulted, it was young Michelangelo, only twenty-six years old, who convinced the Operai that he deserved the commission. On August 16, 1501, Michelangelo was given the official contract to undertake this challenging new task. He began carving the statue early in the morning on Monday, September 13, a month after he was awarded the contract. He would work on the massive biblical hero for a little more than three years.

Michelangelo's David differs from previous representations of the subject in that David is depicted before his battle with Goliath and not after the giant's defeat (as he is in Donatello's and Verrocchio's versions, produced earlier). Instead of being shown victorious over a foe much larger than he, David looks tense and ready for combat. His veins bulge out of his lowered right hand and the twist of his body effectively conveys to the viewer the feeling that he is in motion. The statue is meant to show David after he has made the decision to fight Goliath but before the battle has actually taken place. It is a representation of the moment between conscious choice and conscious action [citation needed] .


Davut, Davud Heykeli,  David. 1501-1504. Marble. Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence, ItalyCopy standing in the original location of the David, in front of the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence.On January 25, 1504, when the sculpture was nearing completion, a committee of Florentine artists including Leonardo da Vinci and Sandro Botticelli met to decide on an appropriate site for the David. The majority, led by Giuliano da Sangallo and supported by Leonardo and Piero di Cosimo, among others, believed that due to the imperfections in the marble the sculpture should be placed under the roof of the Loggia dei Lanzi on Piazza della Signoria. Only a rather minor view, supported by Botticelli, believed that the sculpture should be situated on or near the cathedral. Eventually the David was placed in front of the entrance to the Palazzo Vecchio, also on Piazza della Signoria, replacing Donatello's bronze sculpture of Judith and Holofernes, which embodied a comparable theme of heroic resistance. It took four days to move the statue from Michelangelo's workshop onto the Piazza della Signoria. In 1504, the Florentines added a gilded wreath to his head and a gilt-bronze belt to cover his nudity. At that time the supporting tree stump was also gilded.

To protect it from damage, the sculpture was moved in 1873 to the Accademia Gallery in Florence, where it attracts many visitors. A replica was placed in the Piazza della Signoria in 1910.

In 1991 a vandal attacked the statue with a hammer, damaging the toes of the left foot before being restrained. The samples obtained from that incident allowed scientists to determine that the marble used by Michelangelo was obtained from the Fantiscritti quarries in Miseglia, the central of three small valleys in Carrara. The block was quarried 40 years prior to carving of David. In that time period, two other sculptors, Agostino di Duccio and Antonio Rossellino, attempted to carve from it, but both abandoned their projects due to lack of experience and skill and a fault that lay through the block of marble. The marble in question contains many microscopic holes that cause it to deteriorate faster than other marbles. It is believed that because the quality of the marble is rather mediocre, Michelangelo obtained the block for free. Because of the marble's degradation, a controversy occurred in 2003, when the statue underwent its first major cleaning since 1843. Some experts opposed the use of water to clean the statue, fearing further deterioration.

Style and detail

Detail of the David.Michelangelo's David is based on the artistic discipline of disegno, which is built on knowledge of the male human form. Under this discipline, sculpture is considered to be the finest form of art because it mimics divine creation. Because Michelangelo adhered to the concepts of disegno, he worked under the premise that the image of David was already in the block of stone he was working on — in much the same way as the human soul is thought by some to be found within the physical body. It is also an example of the contrapposto style of posing the human figure.

The proportions are not quite true to the human form; the head and upper body are somewhat larger than the proportions of the lower body. While some have suggested that this is of the mannerist style, the most commonly accepted explanation is that the statue was originally intended to be placed on a church façade or high pedestal, and that the proportions would appear correct when the statue was viewed from some distance below. Others suggest the head and hands were created larger to represent thinking with the brain and working with the hands. While the genitals were created smaller to imply that David was not allowing himself to make decisions with pleasure in mind.

There was controversy over the statue's supposed Biblical reference, since the statue seemed to portray an uncircumcised male, whereas the historical King David was undoubtedly circumcised. Because of this, some art historians believed that "David" was actually the name of the model who posed for the statue, rather than King David himself, and that Michelangelo claimed the Biblical reference to make it acceptable to the Christian world. It was also suggested that this was a conscious decision in Michelangelo's endeavor to emulate the ancient Greek aesthetic ideals, which regarded the circumcised penis as mutilated.

Replicas

Replica of the statue of David in the Raptis Plaza, Surfers Paradise.A replica of the statue was offered as a gift by the municipality of Florence to the municipality of Jerusalem to mark the 3,000th anniversary of David's conquest of the city. The proposed gift evoked a storm in Jerusalem, where religious factions urged the gift be declined, because the naked figure was considered pornographic. Finally, a compromise was reached and another, fully-clad replica of a different statue was donated instead.

There are many full-size replicas of the statue around the world, from a plaster cast copy in London's Victoria and Albert Museum, to the centrepiece of a shopping mall in Surfers Paradise, Australia. There is also a replica in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. One resident of Los Angeles, California, has decorated his house and grounds with twenty-three reduced scale replicas of the statue. There is also a copy gracing the "Appian Way Shops" at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas. A bronze casting from the original marble statue also stands in Delaware Park in Buffalo, New York. Another bronze casting is the centerpiece in the courtyard of the John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art in Sarasota, Florida. The Philadelphia Museum of Art also has a replica, albeit quite a rough one.

Surprisingly there is also a replica placed in Pune, India. It is installed at the Administrative Building of the Pune University at Aundh Road. It is erected next to a statue of a half naked woman, that seems to depict Bathsheba. The statue of David there is part of the legacy that the British left when India gained its independence.

Michalengelo The Sistine ChapelThe Sistine Chapel

When Michelangelo was invited to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, the lower walls of it were already decorated with scenes from the lives of Moses and Christ, executed by the Florentine and Umbrian artists Botticelli (The Temptation of Christ (1481-1482), Scenes from the Life of Moses (1481-1482), The Punishment of Korah (1481-1482)), Cosimo Rosselli, Piero di Cosimo, Domenico Ghirlandaio (The Calling of St. Peter), Luca Signorelli, Pinturicchio and Pietro Perugino (The Delivery of the Keys (1482)). Above these frescoes, which occupied straightforward rectangular fields, Michelangelo created his masterpiece.
The twelve existing windows along the lateral walls of the chapel he integrated by means of twelve lunettes capped with twelve spandrels. In them he depicted ancestors of Christ:
Azor and Sadok; Josias, Jechonias and Salathiel; Ezekias, Manasses and Amon; Asa, Josaphat and Joram; Jesse, David and Solomon; Naasson; Aminadab; Salmon, Booz and Obed; Roboam and Abia; Ozias, Joatham and Achaz; Zorobabel; Abiud and Eliakim; Achim and Eliud; Jacob and Joseph; Eleazar and Matthan.

Between these he placed the large seated figures of the Prophets and Sibyls: The Prophet Zechariah, The Sibyl of Delphi, The Prophet Isiah, The Cumaean Sibyl, The Prophet Daniel, The Libyan Sibyl, The Prophet Jonah, The Persian Sibyl, The Prophet Jeremiah, The Erythraean Sibyl, The Prophet Ezekiel, The Prophet Joel.

The four corner frescoes, pendentives, are: David and Goliath; Judith and Holofernes; The Punishment of Haman; The Brazen Serpent.

The entire central section of the ceiling he crossed with painted arches, dividing the ceiling into nine pictorial fields. The arches are supported at either end by painted columns. Between the arches, Michelangelo skillfully grouped the nine central fields thus created into three triptychs: The Creation of the World, The Creation and Fall of Man, and The Story of Noah.
The Creation of the World consists of three frescoes: The Separation of Light and Darkness, The Creation of the Sun and Moon, The Separation of Land and Water.
The Creation and Fall of Man includes the following frescoes: The Creation of Adam, The Creation of Eve, The Fall and The Expulsion from Paradise.
The Story of Noah consists of frescoes: The Sacrifice of Noah, The Flood, The Drunkenness of Noah.
He thereby organized the fields into a rhythmical sequence in which a large picture is flanked by two smaller ones, a device which dramatically emphasizes the four main scenes: The Creation of Sun and Moon, The Creation of Adam, The Fall and the Expulsion from Paradise, and The Flood.
Tomb of Lorenzo de' Medici (detail). Dawn. 1526-1531. Marble. Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo, Florence, ItalyAt the meeting of the cornices are twenty Ignudi, paintings of naked young men, who have no connection whatsoever to the theme of the rest of the project. Michelangelo's reasons for including them are unknown, but it is mostly likely that they were simply aesthetic: Michangelo admired the male figure and often used male models even for his depictions of women.
The extraordinary thing about Michelangelo's design is that it is designed and articulated as a single unit. The groups are framed in a system of cornices in such a way that they produce the effect of enormous three-dimensional plaques and cameos. At the same time, not a single one of the frescoes is meant to stand on its own; and each one is perfectly integrated to form the unity of the whole.

1- Otoportre
2- Madonna of the Stairs. c.1490. Marble. Casa Buonarroti, Florence, Italy.
3- Michelangelo. Battle of the Centaurs. 1492. Low relief, marble. Casa Buonarroti, Florence, Italy
4- Crucifix from the Santo Spirito Convent. c.1492. Polychrome wood. Casa Buonarroti, Florence, Italy
5- Saint Proculus. 1494-1495. Marble. Basilica of San Domenico, Bologna, Italy
6- Bacchus. 1496-1497. Marble. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence, Italy
7- Pieta. 1499. Marble. St. Peter's, Vatican
8- Pieta (detail). 1499. Marble. St. Peter's, Vatican.
9- Pieta (detail). 1499. Marble. St. Peter's, Vatican.
10- David. 1501-1504. Marble. Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence, Italy
11- David (detail). 1501-1504. Marble. Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence, Italy
12- Tondo Pitti - Virgin and Child with the Young St. John. 1503-1504. Low relief, marble. Museo Nazionale, Bargello,
Florence, Italy.
13- Tondo Taddei 1503-1504. Low relief, marble. Royal Academy of Arts, London, UK.
(Sistin Chapel'in tavanındaki çalışmalardan detay 1)14- Virgin and Child. c.1504. Marble. Onze Lieve-Vrouw, Bruges, Belgium.
15- Aristotile da Sangallo. The Battle of Cascina, copy after Michelangelo, central section of the cartoon. c.1542. Oil on
panel. Holkham Hall, Norfolk, UK.
16- Doni Tondo - The Holy Family with St. John the Baptist. c.1504-1506. Oil on panel. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence,
Italy
17- The interior of the Sistine Chapel showing the ceiling fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
18- Partial view of the the frescoes in the Sisine Chapel. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
19- The Separation of Light and Darkness. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
20- The Separation of Land and Water. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
21- The Creation of Adam. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
22- The Creation of Eve. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
23- The Fall of Man and the Expulsion from the Garden of Eden. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatic
24- The Sacrifice of Noah. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
25- The Flood. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
26- The Flood (detail). 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
Kıyamet
27- The Flood (detail). 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
28- The Drunkenness of Noah. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatic
29- The Sibyl of Delphi. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
30- The Libyan Sibyl. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
31- The Prophet Jeremiah. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
32- The Prophet Zechariah. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
33- Judith and Holofernes. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
34- The Punishment of Haman. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
35- The Ancestors of Christ: Josias, Jechonias and Salathiel. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
36- The Ancestors of Christ: Jesse, David and Solomon. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
37- Ignudi. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
38- The Tomb of the Pope Julius II. 1542-1545. Marble. San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, Italy
39- Moses. c.1513-1516. Marble. San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, Italy
40- Dying Slave. c.1513-1516. Marble. The Louvre, Paris, France
41- Rebellious Slave. c.1513-1516. Marble. The Louvre, Paris, France
42- Michelangelo. Rebellious Slave. c.1513-1516. Marble. The Louvre, Paris, France
43- Victory. c.1520-1525. Marble. Palazzo Vecchio, Rome, Florence, Italy
44- Crouching Boy. c.1524. Marble. The hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia
45- Tomb of Lorenzo de' Medici. 1526-1531. Marble. Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy
46- Tomb of Lorenzo de' Medici (detail). Lorenzo de' Medici. 1526-1531. Marble. Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy.
47- Tomb of Lorenzo de' Medici (detail). Dusk. 1526-1531. Marble. Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy
48- Tomb of Lorenzo de' Medici (detail). Dawn. 1526-1531. Marble. Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy
49- Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici. 1526-1531. Marble. Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy.
50- Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici (detail). Giuliano de' Medici. 1526-1531. Marble. Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy.
51- Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici (detail). Giuliano de' Medici. 1526-1531. Marble. Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy.
52- Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici (detail). Night. 1526-1531. Marble. Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy.
53- Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici (detail). Day. 1526-1531. Marble. Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy.
54- Madonna. 1521-1534. Marble. Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy.
55- The Last Judgment. 1534-1541. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
56- The Last Judgment (detail). 1534-1541. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
57- The Last Judgment (detail). 1534-1541. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
58- The Last Judgment (detail). 1534-1541. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
59- The Last Judgment (detail). 1534-1541. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
60- The Last Judgment (detail). 1534-1541. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
61- The Last Judgment (detail). 1534-1541. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
62- The Last Judgment (detail). 1534-1541. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, Vatican
63- Brutus. 1540. Marble. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence, Italy.
64- Pieta. c.1550. Marble. Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Florence, Italy
65- Pieta Rondanini, unfinished. 1564. Marble. Castello Sforzesco, Milan, Italy
66- Conversion of Saint Paul. 1542-1545. Frescoes. Pauline Chapel, Vatican
67- Crucifixion of Saint Peter. 1546-1550. Frescoes. Pauline Chapel, Vatican.
68- Porta Pia. Begun 1562. Rome, Italy.
69- Capitol, facade of the Conservators' Place.Rome, Italy
70- Vestibule of the Laurentian Library. 1524-1559. Florence, Italy
71- St. Peter's. 1546-1564. Rome, Italy.
72- Capitoline Hill. Piazza Campidoglio, Rome, Italy

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